Sunday, May 17, 2020

Essay on Intelligence Sharing Intelligence and Law...

Intelligence versus Law Enforcement Intelligence collection and apprehension of criminals have occurred for many years; however, with the exception of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, these actions were performed by different organizations. Nonetheless, roles and responsibilities have changed since the attacks on September 11, 2001. Intelligence-led policing and the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing program were incorporated, and fusion centers were established to help gather intelligence from different levels of the government. Although law enforcement at the local, state, and tribal levels aid in intelligence collection, it is important to ensure that intelligence gathered to protect national security and law enforcement†¦show more content†¦Data can be collected through human sources, satellites, wiretapping, signals, and internet traffic. However, intelligence organizations must be in compliance with the law to ensure that they are not illegally collecting information (Chesney, 2012). Collect ion occurs because a threat is likely to occur or agencies are trying to find out what information our foreign adversaries possess about the nation’s assets. Intelligence collection occurs in both domestic and foreign territories. Intelligence agencies collect information about foreign adversaries in order to exploit their weaknesses or vulnerabilities (Gentry, 2008). Furthermore, government agencies and political leaders want to discover which of the nation’s assets are seen as vulnerable to the enemy (Gentry, 2008). Other intelligence operations also consist of covert, counterintelligence operations. Counterintelligence is usually used to collect information about the adversary and weaken foreign intelligence operations. Sabotage, spying, and infiltration are all characteristics of foreign intelligence operations. Covert operations hide the identity of the agent(s) or officer(s) executing the operations. If operations are compromised, this protects the agent(s) against retaliation from the enemy. The purpose of analysis is to evaluate the collected information and determineShow MoreRelatedInformation Sharing Between The Intelligence Community1593 Words   |  7 Pagesby the Intelligence Committee of the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA), both law enforcement and intelligence organizations recognize the need to collaborate, share, and exchange information. However, the events leading up to 9/11 document how the legal and artificial boundaries between them created a serious impediment to protecting the country. First this paper will discuss some of the reasoning and initiatives behind the development of information sharing betweenRead MoreThe Cicc and Giwg Brief883 Words   |  4 Pagescooperation between intelligence agencies is charged to the Criminal Intelligence Coordinating Council (CICC) and the Global Intelligence Working Group (GIWG). Working in concert, the CICC and the GIWG advocates for local police force agencies in the development a nd communicating of criminal intelligence to promote public safety and our Nation’s security. The recognition by the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP) of the prominence of the state, local, and tribal law enforcement (SLTLE) areRead MoreIntegration Has Been The Vanguard Initiative Of The Director Of National Intelligence806 Words   |  4 PagesDirector of National Intelligence (ODNI). This initiative has been successful in several areas to include: the creation of National Intelligence Managers (NIM) for all primary geographic regions and functional areas; enhanced transparency; and the focus on the negative impacts of over classifying documents. However, not all efforts to integrate the intelligence community (IC) have been successful. For instance, the ODNI did not succeed at creating a comprehensive sharing environment, and has notRead MoreThe Intelligence Community Of The United States1091 Words   |  5 PagesThe intelligence community of the Unit ed States is a large, robust and bureaucratic system. From this community though, the national objectives of the United States are supported through their gathering and analytical capabilities. The following paper will highlight the intelligence agencies of the Federal government as well as state and local agencies that make up the intelligence community. Within these entities are programs that develop intelligence for use in protecting the homeland as wellRead MoreLaw Enforcement Today763 Words   |  4 PagesLaw Enforcement Today Paper Chelsea Berry Foundations of the Criminal Justice System June 2, 2013 Gary Lair Many police departments are facing budget problems, forcing them to cut their police force down. Many officers are being asked to do things they normally dont do such as patrolling. Police departments are also facing increasing crimes due to the poor economyRead MoreDifferent Elements That Compromise The Intelligence Communities ( Ic ) From Local Law Enforcement Essay1556 Words   |  7 PagesThis paper will analyze the different elements that compromise the intelligence communities (IC) from local law enforcement to national agencies and how each of those entities contributes to security intelligence. Secondly, this paper will evaluate the lessons learned from the attacks of 9/11. Lastly, the issues of domestic intelligence vs. foreign intelligence will be examined. Intelligence-led policing along with other various initiatives is a newly developed style of investigation strategy. ThisRead MoreGathering And Sharing. The Appropriate Roles For Local1490 Words   |  6 PagesGathering and Sharing The appropriate roles for local and federal law enforcement agencies in a national strategy for protecting the homeland is vigilance, intelligence gathering and sharing. When it came to the case of the Orlando Shooter, Omar Mateen, the gun smith told the FBI about him after he purchased the weapons and before he did the shooting. The law enforcement agencies need to take no warning or threat lightly. Intelligence gathering is very important in law enforcement. Intelligence gatheringRead MoreIntelligence And The Homeland Security1205 Words   |  5 PagesWhat are the capabilities and limitations of intelligence in supporting homeland security efforts? While the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is one, centralized agency, securing the homeland involves the cooperation and collaboration of many, different agencies and organizations ranging from local law enforcement to national agencies such as the NSA, CIA, and FBI. Each of these agencies contributes to the development of homeland security intelligence. By carefully analyzing and commenting onRead MoreFusion Centers And The Interagency Threat Assessment And Coordination Group853 Words   |  4 PagesHomeland security in hopes of improving information sharing amongst both Federal, State, Local and tribal law enforcement agencies. The attacks of 9/11 proved that intelligence capabilities and willingness to share information lacked greatly. These programs were developed to hopefully counter that issue. The use of fusion cells started off with hesitation and complications initially. However, the use of fusion cells are absolutely critical to the sharing of information between agencies. â€Å"The goal is toRead More Problems, Solutions, and Future of Law Enforcement Intelligence1454 Words   |  6 Pages PROBLEMS, SOLUTIONS, AND FUTURE OF LAW ENFORMCEMENT INTELLIGENCE The use of intelligence within law enforcement intelligence agencies is not always perfect. There may be a way to safeguard against the misuse of intelligence processes to assure proper use it at all times, but it has not yet been discovered. The only way that agencies can try and control the misuse of intelligence is to study the historical failures of the past. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;It is of most important to protect

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Esther’S Madness Is Presented As A Consequence Of Her...

Esther’s madness is presented as a consequence of her rebellion against the archetypes of gender roles, which she is surrounded by in the novel. Chodorow argues that, in our subjective understanding of gender relations, individuals ‘create new meanings in terms of their own unique biographies.’ Chodorow’s argument is evident in how Esther understands gender relations through her experience with Buddy Willard. His mother believes that ‘what a man is is an arrow into the future and what a woman is is the place the arrow shoots off from’ (Plath, 67). In the juxtaposition of a place and an arrow, the woman is presented as a constant and a base which enables the man to progress. Esther’s awareness of this outlook and her rejection of it allows†¦show more content†¦Therefore, madness is presented as the only rebellion Esther can take, by allowing her distance from the gender binary which runs through the novel, leading to the romantic isation of suicide as the only way to escape the archetypal female role. In the romanticisation of Tony, and Natalie’s rejection of reality, madness is portrayed as a successful rebellion against society. Rubenstein acknowledges the ambiguous nature of Tony, to argue that Natalie ‘fantasizes a secret female companion named Tony, who may be understood as her braver, more self-sufficient alter ego.’ This interpretation of Tony allows for the claim that she encompasses Natalie’s madness and assists in further fragmenting her psyche from reality. In Tony’s company, Natalie portrays herself as ‘running not from fear, but because it was early morning and they were together’ (Jackson, 182). This romanticises Natalie and Tony’s alienation from their peers as providing companionship through their shared sense of consciousness, rather than worsening mental health being an isolating experience. This allows for Natalie’s madness to worsen, as Tony’s presence encourages her to resist normality. Tonyâ €™s functioning as a resistance against reality is further evident in the depiction that, ‘irresistibly Natalie found herself moving toward the lake, with a human impulse to get to the edge of the world and stop, but Tony took her arm and said, â€Å"This way†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Jackson, 207). This depiction can be interpreted as Tony,

Listing Rules and Role of Australians Security and Investment Commissi

Question: Discuss about the Listing Rules and Role of Australians Security and Investment Commission. Answer: Introduction Communication and leadership are the key factors for running a business effectively. Businessmen have to incorporate a legal entity to run their business in determined approach. Companies have to get their shares listed on stock exchange in order to raise capital from the general public over the time with the increasing ramification of economic working conditions. Leadership and communication are two aspects which are required to be absorbed by top management for proper business functioning. However, communication skills are the sub part of leadership. In this report various communication and leadership intents have been taken into consideration for business functioning of organization. In the starting of this report investigation and procedure to incorporate small propriety company have been discussed. Afterward, role of Australian security exchange in society has been evaluated. Then listing rules and regulations that are applicable in Australian company have been read with corpora te laws. In the end, the most imperative factor of role played by Australian security and investment commission for regulating the behavior of companies in their business functioning are discussed. A leader of organization has to evaluate all the laws and regulation in order to avoid possible penalties (Kang Gray, 2013). Investigate the procedure and framework which is required to be followed under the corporation Act 2001 to incorporate small proprietary company. Small Propriety Company In Australia, a proprietary company is defined under section 45(1) of the corporation act 2001. This is a company which satisfies following two conditions subject to the otherwise provided in the corporation act 2001. This company is ideally incorporated with a view to start a business with separate legal entity. However, businessman chooses to incorporate small propriety company when he wants to start new business with low capital and with less complexity in his business functioning (Dwyer Kotey, 2015). The consolidated amount of revenue for the financial years of the companies it controls is below $ 25 million. The value of consolidate assets of all the companies it controls is less than $ 12.5 million. Number of employees of the company including the company it controls has less than 50 employees. There are two options to incorporate a small proprietary company as per corporation act 2001. First we can contact private services providers or lodge a paper directly with AISC. In the second option a form- 201- (application for registration of company) would be filled and lodge it with Australian security and investment commission. Then ASIC will give ACN number accompanied with certificate of registration which will be unique to small proprietary company. However, while incorporation of small proprietary company businessmen needs to follow all the guidelines given in information sheet 1 (INFO 61). Role of Australian stock exchange in society Society is accompanied with stakeholders of the company. Role of stock exchange are varied and highly important for the economic development of country. Australian stock exchange is an Australian public company that operates Australian stock exchange where all the shares of listed Australian companies are listed. The Australian security and investment commission have responsibility for the supervision for the real time trading of Australian domestic licensed markets (Daneshgar Wang, 2007). The fundamental role of ASX is to provide an effective way for the business man to raise capital form the market. However, ASX works for the best interest of the investors and protect their rights from unethical behavior of organizations. Ideally ASX assists investors to buy and sell their securities and scriptures in secondary market so that they could increase the value of their investment. The main role of ASX is to list the securities of the companies and provide a proper surveillance of the listed company. It also facilities secondary market for the investors to buy and sell the securities issued by the listed company. In addition, ASX imposes straighten rules for the companies to get their shares listed on exchanges which ultimately results into better corporate governance simultaneously. It has also observed that Australian stock exchange provides stock indexes which could be used as true indicators for the economic growth of Australian economy. Australian stock exchange is ma in body to manage risk of market to curb insider trading (buying and selling of shares with the help of confidential information). In simple words it would be said that Australian stock exchange provides a bridge to investors and companies to contact each other. Priority is established to provide all the possible safeguards to protect the best interest of investors (Chiappini, 2011). ASX listing rules and procedure to be followed by the company to list their share listed on Australian stock exchange ASX regulates the offers of securities by companies in Australia and certain associated matters such as trading of securities, insider trading, market misconduct and pre prospectus advertisement. In addition to this, ASX issues various listing rules and regulation which assists in better corporate governance of the company on continues basis. The listing rules set out the specific requirements that an organizations has to meet to make effective compliance in their business functioning. As per the Australian listing rules, company must satisfy minimum admission criteria including structuring and number of employees given as below to be eligible to list on ASX, (Bessler, et., al., 2012). The Companies which want to list their security has to maintain 400 employees and $ 2000 and unrelated party would hold 50 % of security. In case of company which is already listed on a foreign exchange can list on ASX. In this case the listing requirement of ASX would be followed by the company and foreign listing rules will be exempted. Those companies which are about to come up with Initial public offer in the market are tend to list their shares on stock exchange. However, there are following advisors who will help companies to list their shares listed on exchange (Wilkinson, 2014). There are following obligation on the companies to get their shares listed on the stock exchange. Each listed companies must notify ASX immediately for their shares listed after complying all the listing rules and regulations. Once company gets its shares listed on the stock exchange then it has to comply with the entire listing discourse requirement on the consistent basis. In addition, ASX also resolves all the possible grievances and problems of employees in effective manner. (Lewis, 2014). Financial reporting is required on a half yearly and annual basis in Australia. However, companies without track record need to file quarterly cash flow statement. It is also observed that mining and Oil companies are required to file quarterly reports on their activities of investment with the ASX stock exchange (Charest, et., al., 2014). In case of Dual listing problem of company it would be observed that company should comply with both rules if shares are issued on domestic and international level as well. However, in case of issue of shares in Australia, company only needs to comply with Australian listing rules and regulations. ASX also requires listed companies to take shareholders approval in their annual general meeting before issue of shares in the general public (Andersen Tourani, 2013). Key factors in ensuing a successful listing Identify whether an IPO is the right option for the company if so then evaluate whether ASX is the most appropriate stock exchange for the organization. Preparation of prospectus and other offer letters containing all the required details of the company for the investors. Prepare action plan to list its security on the appropriate stock exchange in context with investors inclination with the companys offering. Preparation of due diligence report in order to make investors vigilant about the company. Complying with the entire listing disclosure requirement. Appointment of compliance officer for complying with all laws and regulation of listing rules (Kang Gray, 2013). In addition to this, company has to comply with the entire listing requirement such as having minimum capital requirement, minimum number of employees partition of unrelated party investment in share capital of the company. Role played by the Australian security and investment commission It is an independent Australian government body that act as Australians corporate regulators. The main role of Australian security and investment commission is to regulate and enforce all the laws and regulation on the registered company in order to protect Australian consumers, investors and other creditors in effective manner. The main aim of ASIC is to promote efficiency, honesty and fair business functioning of companies in Australia. It is also known as financial service regulator for the wellbeing of Australias economic reputation and ensuring that Australian security and financial market are providing true and transparent values to its investors. Australian security and investment commission is also responsible for the supervision of operators of financial markets, operators of clearing and settlement facilities of market participants. Australian security and investment commission undertakes all the regulatory enforcement powers, issue licenses and monitors ethical working conditions of companies. It ensures that promoters and management department of companies are providing effective business operation to their clients through the Australian financial services licensing system which includes (Guseva, 2013). Make rules aimed at ensuring the integrity of financial market Incorporate prosecution Seek civil penalties form the court against wrong doers Issue infringement notices to companies which have committed default in their business functioning. Indulge in suspected breaches of the laws and ask companies to justify the reasons of doing so in proper manner (Dwyer Kotey, 2015). Ideally Australian security and investment commission is concerned with protecting the interest of investors, creditors and clients from the business functioning of organization in the market. It is observed that if company holds the license issued by the Australian security and investment commission then it would be considered as highly ethical company in terms of its offering (McGrath, 2013). ASIC governance structure The commission that governs ASIC is comprised of chairperson, deputy chairpersons and between one and six other members. It meets on monthly basis to discuss all the required matters on the financial services provided by the organizations in Australian market. However, it does not have set code of conduct for its functioning. The government expects that ASIC will comply with government regulatory impact analysis requirement for regulatory proposals, The Main role played by Australian security and investment commission It has observed that Australian security and investment commission issues license which reflects that company is complying with all the required regulations and laws (with a view to increase the transparency in their business functioning). In addition, it contributes to Australian economic reputation and other wellbeing of people of Australia by ensuring that Australians financial market is reflecting all the true and fair view with the transparent policies and frameworks. Conclusion In this report there are various topics e.g. incorporation of small company, role played by Australian security and investment commission in Australian market and how legal framework related with the listing rules could be followed for the better transparency of organization. It is observed that the main purpose of Australian stock exchange is to protect the interest of investors and helps them to manage their marketing risk accordingly. Throughout the time with the increasing ramification Australian security and investment commission and other regulatory bodies have strengthen listing polices and laws for the better protection of interest of investors. Now in the end it would be said that companies which want to get their shares listed on stock exchange has to comply with all the listing rules and regulation otherwise it will has to face high amount of penalty. References Andersen, A., Gilbert, A. Tourani-Rad, A. 2013, "Breach of continuous disclosure in Australia",JASSA,, no. 4, pp. 21-26. Bessler, W., Kaen, F.R., Kurmann, P. Zimmermann, J. 2012, "The listing and delisting of German firms on NYSE and NASDAQ: Were there any benefits?",Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money,vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1024-1053. Charest, G., Cosset, J., Marhfor, A. M'Zali, B. 2014, "Financing constraints and US cross?listing",Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration,vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 160-174. Daneshgar, F. Wang, J. 2007, "Validation of the awareness net model for the Australian security investment processes",Knowledge-Based Systems,vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 736-744. Dwyer, B. Kotey, B. 2015, "Financing SME Growth: The Role of the National Stock Exchange of Australia and Business Advisors: Financing SME Growth",Australian Accounting Review,vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 114-123. Guseva, Y. 2013, "Cross-listings and the new world of international capital: another look at the efficiency and extraterritoriality of securities law",Georgetown Journal of International Law,vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 459. Kang, H. Gray, S.J. 2013, "Segment Reporting Practices in Australia: Has IFRS 8 Made a Difference?",Australian Accounting Review,vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 232-243 Lewis, K. 2014, "ASX releases final version of listing rule changes",Governance Directions,vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 329. McGrath, M. 2013, "Guidance Note 8 Continuous Disclosure: Listing Rules 3.1-3.1B - any new challenges?",Keeping Good Companies,vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 202-203. Starr, M. 2011, "Regulating ASX - the regulation of listing, trading, clearing and settlement businesses",Keeping Good Companies,vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 270. Warren, K. Dimovski, B. 2012, "The direct costs of raising equity capital by renounceable rights issues in Australia",JASSA,, no. 2, pp. 14-19. Wilkinson, S. 2014, "Key changes to proposed ASX listing rules",Governance Directions,vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 223-225.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Quality in Product and Service design

Introduction Quality is regarded as a very important part of life today, which has become necessary for businesses to compete effectively in the market (Dhillon, 2005, p.123). Generally, product quality directly affects consumer loyalty and company profitability (Mital, et al. 2008, p.78).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Quality in Product and Service design specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The concept is both vital in both manufacturing and service sectors, and has continuously played an important role in providing assurance to the safety of customers (Sower 2010, p.3). In addition, quality of a product or service has often being defined as ‘fitness for purpose’ (Chitale and Gupta 2007, p.332). This definition provides the impression that, for any industry or enterprise to be successful and accomplish its set goals effectively it has to possess the ability to supply products of excellent quality at minimal cost and also at minimum waiting time for the customer. Khanna sees quality as â€Å"the totality of features of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy the customer’s stated or implied needs† (Khanna, 2007, p.64). The author further believes that quality has the sole responsibility of providing satisfaction to both actual and perceived needs. Upon the inception of the concept of quality, the concern in many industries rested on checking raw materials before production and finished goods after production in order to attain quality objectives (Chitale and Gupta, 2007, p.332). But today, quality has become important to both the customer and the supplier whereby if a product is largely inadequate, it usually incurs additional costs for inspection, testing, scrap, rework and the handling of numerous complaints and this often heap many claims on the part of the supplier. Further, on the part of service industries, errors, checking enquiries and comp laint handling always lead to loss of efficiency and productivity, thus affecting the repeat sales and future markets. Therefore, quality has become a vital element in industries and it has to be ensured in all key areas of marketing, design, purchasing, production or operation and distribution.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quality of design Most industries adopt different product design strategies where the ultimate goal becomes that of satisfying the customers. But it becomes necessary that the design of a product or service should integrate the features and attributes that provide satisfaction to the customer needs. Design quality essentially gives value to a product in the market place and hence graduates to be regarded as an important strategic issue (Khanna, 2007, p.65). With regards to this, the most vital feature of the design in relation to quality is the specifi cation which, in general terms, describes the product in a more comprehensive manner of all the aspects that are required to give full satisfaction to the customer’s needs. Therefore, specification becomes the benchmark upon which the maximum tolerable variations that can be accepted from the particular attribute (Khanna, 2007). Design quality has numerous dimensions that are employed in understanding the concept of product and service better: Performance, performance in this case constitute the basic operating characteristics of a product where the customers have the opportunity to evaluate the quality of a product by making comparison between the performance of the product or service with another similar products which are available in the market and given by the competitors (Khanna, 2007); Features, these vital elements constitute secondary characteristics which supplement the primary characteristics as outlined under performance. These characteristics often influence the perception held by the consumer concerning quality; Reliability, reliability in Product and service design refers to the probability of a product failing within a specified period of time. Many customers have come to show preferences to products with high reliability as compared to the products with low reliability and this particular phenomenon is always exhibited to products and services of high value; Durability, durability in this case is used to indicate the operational life of a product whereby some particular products are prone to complete failure after some period of time and hence have to be replaced fully while others may experience partial failure and therefore restored to their original performance through repairs (Khanna, 2007); Serviceability, serviceability is an indicator that shows the easiness with which a product can be repaired upon experiencing failure and from this if a product has the ability to be repaired easily and speedily, the availability of the product improves while at the same time leading to reduction in repair costs. On the other hand, the dimensions of quality for a service are somehow different from those of a product whereby the service quality is evaluated with regard to time taken to make the service available and also the manner in which there is the interaction between the service provider and the customer. In this case therefore, the dimensions of service quality will largely include: Timeliness, which is the assurance that the service will be available at the appropriate and desired time; Completeness, which generally indicated the degree to which the customer is provided with almost everything he or she asks for; Courtesy, which largely measures how customers are treated by the service employees; Consistency, whereby it becomes necessary to provide the same level of service to each customer each time; Accessibility and convenience – this particular aspect refers to the ease with which a service can be made available; and lastly Accuracy, which is the correctness with which the service is able to be provided (Khanna, 2007). The role of quality in product and service design The key to success in business lies in establishing what the consumers need and, in cost effective way, providing the products and services that give satisfaction and happiness to them (Jackson and Frigon, 1998, p.20). Products and services usually get description basing on attributes with regards to performance but at the same time, customers will frequently review the quality of a product or service in terms of their reaction to their experience with the particular product or service. From this, it becomes vital for the business to participate in a thorough evaluation of presales, sales, delivery operation and post sales with the view of defining the appropriate product or service (Jackson and Frigon 1998, p.20). Moreover, data collected concerning the products and services provided a particular business which lar gely reflects the customer and the marketplace operation is refereed to us, the Voice of the Customer (VOC). Today, businesses are pressure to ‘listen’ to the Voice of the Customer which enables the particular business to learn the attributes of the entire customer experience in accordance to the products or services consumed by the customer. From these data, the business is able to determine what needs to be done in order to achieve customer satisfaction and essentially in most instances customer satisfaction is achieved through combining elements of performance, schedule and price (Quality, Schedule and Cost).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Quality in Product and Service design specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The attributes that add to customer satisfaction are always categorized into four types; expectors, spoken, unspoken and exciters (Jackson and Frigon 1998, p.21). Expectors are attributes w hich customers regard less important but if they are omitted they result into customer dissatisfaction, spoken characteristics are the ones the customer species and always appear in written descriptions expressing quality elements that the customer would prefer, on the other hand the unspoken characteristics have same importance as the spoken characteristics but largely constitute those elements that the customer forgot about, did not know about or did not want to talk about, the last type of characteristics are those that excite customers and customers rarely talk about them and also rarely thing about them but will be talked possibly in vague terms by the customer and they will largely be satisfiers and not dissatisfiers (Jackson and Frigon 1998, p.21). Role of quality in product design is essential in that it should reflect on the specific customer needs (Evans 2007, p.123). Customer expectations need to be identified correctly with no misinterpretation for the final product to b e regarded as of high quality (Evans 2007, p.123). The importance of systematic processes to design has been attached to product improvements and also the processes that establish them. Customer needs should be identified and used for the purposes of product planning. For majority of firms’ product design has been regarded as a key value creation process and therefore there is need for firms to have efficient processes that can be used to translate customer needs into product requirements through the processes of selecting key process performance elements considering customer needs, addressing quality needs early in the process of design, coordinating and integrating designs with production and delivery systems. Techniques used to measure quality ISO 9000 Standard provided a comprehensive definition of quality by stating that quality is essentially concerned by the customers’ needs and the ability to satisfy them in the most efficient ways (Mishra 2009, p.237; Webber a nd Wallace 2007). Customers are regarded to have the capability to evaluate whether a product meets the specifications that have been outlined and from this, quality is concerning with fulfilling the needs of the customer. In most cases there has been the existence of two main principal approaches that have been utilized with aim of ensuring that products and services fulfill the needs of the customer (Mishra 2009, p.237). The approaches generally used are, quality control and quality assurance. Quality control constitutes techniques that are employed in identifying products that falls short of the required specification (Mishra 2009, p.237).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The technique usually carry out inspections after the production of the product has been done and at the same time, the technique can result in very high costs as huge resources would have been used to bring about the products that do not meet the required specifications. In eliminating or reducing on the high costs of the quality control technique, a second approach in measuring quality is adopted. The technique is known as quality assurance whereby the technique pays attention to the processes that give rise to the product and not on the product itself (Mishra 2009). The interest on the processes that give rise to the product ensures that only products and services that fulfill customer needs are created and the approach aims to get rid of the underlying weaknesses in the process that may lead to defective products and services. These descriptions give the picture of quality assurance as largely interested in prevention and not remedial actions especially after the defects have oc curred (Mishra 2009). In achieving the goals of quality assurance, it is necessary that the needs of the customer are adequately understood and an effective and reliable quality system designed. Integrating Quality Function Deployment approach (QFD) Quality Function Deployment (QFD) provides a method for listening to the Voice of the Customer and providing adequate answers to it. QFD aims at maximizing customer satisfaction and eliminating dissatisfaction (Bolt and Mazur 1999). The methodology has been accepted by many countries in developing products and services by enhancing ability to give answers to the Voice of the Customer and in cost effective way, providing the desired products and services on time, every time. Major firms have reported that using QFD has enabled them to put reduction to the product development cycle time by almost 75 per cent while at the same time realizing positive improvement in customer satisfaction (Jackson and Frigon 1998, p.33). Hence, using QFD has become advantageous for firms especially for competitive reasons, profit realization and growth of wealth; furthermore, QFD has graduated as a method for listening to customers, thereby optimizing design, materials and processes with aim of ensuring customers expectations are fully satisfied and quality becomes to be evaluated on the basis of the customer’s satisfaction with a particular product or service. To this end implementing QFD will requires resources of the Voice of the Customer in all functional areas of research and development, engineering, sales and marketing, purchasing, quality operations, manufacturing, packaging and after-market support and this sequence ensures the specific firm operates collaboratively in support of designing, developing, producing and servicing its products and services. Conclusion The modern world of doing business is becoming challenging in terms of competition while customers, who are consumers of most products and services, are becomin g more educated and informed. Customers are having unchallenged desire to have the best possible ‘bargain’ for the money and time they invest in obtaining particular products and services. These desires and other vital factors have exerted pressure on firms to adopt effective approaches that are intended to ensure quality management for their products and services. In addition, firms are vigorously participating in producing products and services that are of good quality that provide satisfaction to the consumers. Moreover, consumers’ preferences therefore are going to dictate the quality standards of most firms in terms of producing the required products and services and hence for the firms to remain competitive and realize growth, they need to embrace efficient and effective quality management techniques and approaches in their product and service design. Reference List Bolt, A. and Mazur, G. H., 1999. Integrating Service and Product Quality Function Deployment . University of Michigan. Web. Available from: http://www.mazur.net/works/jurassic_qfd.pdf . Chitale, A. K. and Gupta, R. C., 2007. Product Design and Manufacturing. New Delhi, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Web. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?id=CFlyglsIINYCpg=PA332dq=Quality+in+Product+and+Service+designhl=enei=95NfTICdNYjz4gamy4TXBwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=1ved=0CCsQ6AEwADgK#v=onepageq=Quality%20in%20Product%20and%20Service%20designf=false . Dhillon, B. S., 2005. Reliability, quality, and safety for engineers. NY, Taylor Francis. Web. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?id=vUI_B-zdSXMCpg=PA123dq=importance+of+quality+in+product+and+service+designhl=enei=u7lfTO2RHIP44AbK8oneBwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=6ved=0CE8Q6AEwBQ#v=onepageq=importance%20of%20quality%20in%20product%20and%20service%20designf=false . Evans, J. R., 207. Quality and Performance Excellence: Management, Organization, and Strategy. Cengage Learning. Web. Available from: https://bo oks.google.com/books?id=cp0k20nfMBcCpg=PA124dq=importance+of+quality+in+product+and+service+designhl=enei=_LpfTK-KFcqq4AaS-Z33Bwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=3ved=0CDcQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepageq=importance%20of%20quality%20in%20product%20and%20service%20designf=false . Jackson, H. K. and Frigon, N. L., 1998. Fulfilling customer needs: a practical guide to capacity management. NY, John Wiley and Sons. Web. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?id=uZt9jdGOKuYCpg=PA27dq=role+of+quality+in+product+and+service+designhl=enei=M7BfTNBC4pXiBrHe1KgHsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=5ved=0CEcQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepageqf=false . Khanna. 2007. Production and Operations Management. New Delhi, HI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Web. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?id=GgxdXnfKhHgCpg=PA66dq=Quality+in+Product+and+Service+designhl=enei=95NfTICdNYjz4gamy4TXBwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=7ved=0CFEQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepageq=Quality%20in%20Product%20and%20Service%20designf=false . Mishra, D. K., 2009. Op eration management: Critical Perspectives on Business. New Delhi, Global India Publications. Web. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?id=Gp6jDnUb7gICpg=PA237dq=quality+control+techniques+used+to+meet+customer+needshl=enei=Fr9fTKjvJsWA4QbFx_DRBwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=9ved=0CF8Q6AEwCA#v=onepageq=quality%20control%20techniques%20used%20to%20meet%20customer%20needsf=false . Mital, A. et al. 2008. Product development: a structured approach to consumer product development, design, and manufacture. MA, Butterworth-Heinemann. Web. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?id=AE1kFh_sdVACpg=PA72dq=importance+of+quality+in+product+and+service+designhl=enei=4qxfTJ__LsT44gbixMXRBwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=4ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepageq=importance%20of%20quality%20in%20product%20and%20service%20designf=false . Sower, V. E., 2010. Essentials of Quality with Cases and Experiential Exercise. NJ, John Wiley and Sons. Web. Available from: https://books.google.com/books ?id=l-vc5QAbP8UCpg=PA53dq=Quality+in+Product+and+Service+designhl=enei=ppFfTJD8BoL34Ab1yNj4Bwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=2ved=0CDQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepageq=Quality%20in%20Product%20and%20Service%20designf=false . Webber, L. and Wallace, M., 2007. Quality Control for Dummies. NJ, Wiley Publishing Inc. Web. Available from: https://books.google.com/books?id=9BWkxto2fcECprintsec=frontcoverdq=what+is+quality+controlhl=enei=Y8NfTKjUHpPc4ga_orWmBwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=5ved=0CEQQ6AEwBA#v=onepageqf=true . 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Sunday, March 15, 2020

Economic Prosperity of Peru essays

Economic Prosperity of Peru essays In 1532 the Spanish soldier and adventurer Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire, creating a catalyst for the creation of a new colonial society. Steve Stern discusses the manner in which the indigenous peoples of Huamanga met the challenge of European conquest in his piece entitled, "Peru's Indian Peoples and the Challenge of Spanish Conquest". When the conquistadors first arrived, there appears to have been a mutual attraction and dependency between the Spaniards and indigenous peoples. Stern cites for example that the military skills of the Spaniards intrigued the native aristocracy, the kurakas, and helped local Andean society recognize their new "masters". Besides this element of respect, the local societies of Huamanga saw an alliance with the Spaniards as an efficient way to break from Inca rule and to "protect and advance their own ethnic interests". Hence, it could be said that there was a mutual cooperation between the Spaniards and indigenous people at first. India ns were extremely open to the Spaniard's influence and way of life at first. Joining with them, they believed in the creation of a new society for the financial and commercial profit. However, as Stern mentions, this alliance did not imply that life was without conflict. As in most cases, when there is an ongoing struggle for power, violence is practically inevitable. Peru was no exception. Early relations displayed an uneasy mixture of force, negotiation, and alliance (34). Like the alliance between the two groups, the violence was also shared; Indians abused African slaves and Indians were often subjected to "whipping, looting, and rape by Spaniards, blacks, mestizos, and mulattos" (34). As the Spanish rule continued, the relationship between the Spaniards and the indigenous peoples worsened. Stern mentions labor as one of the elements of civilization that caused negative effects. Spaniards employed Indians for the majority of their labor force, squeezin...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Flavonoids - Critical regulators of seed development Literature review

Flavonoids - Critical regulators of seed development - Literature review Example It has been observed that the size of a seed has influence on the germination process as well as on how the plant survives and grows in the long run. Seeds that are large in size generally possess greater germination and survival power that smaller sized seeds (USDA Forest Service, 2010, pp.132-137). This reflects on the importance of the seed size in the development of the seed. Mizuno et al had mentioned that when hybridization is considered in relation to development of seeds, the speciation of hybrid can be learnt to be present in two classifications. These classifications depend on the ploidy level of the plant and thus can be either homoploid or polyploidy. Genetic incompatibilities might occur in the process of such hybridization that might be considered as barriers for the process. The barriers in the hybridization process might occur as a result of the abnormalities in the hybrid like the hybrid necrosis that includes a reproductive isolation in the plant development phenomenon (Mizuno et al, 2010). According to Thompson et al, flavonoids and transporters of flavonoids are necessary in the developmental process of seeds. The Arabidopsis flavonoid transporter plays a major role in seed development. The flavonoids protect the seeds from the ultraviolet light as well as pigmenting the flowers of the plants for the enhancement of pollination which is essential for seed development. The flavonoids regulate the transport of auxin in the seed. What is more important is the manner in which the compounds conduct their transportation in between the synthesis site to the necessary cell location and tissues (Thompson et al, 2009, pp.439-451). Studies of Fulton et al represent the fact that the behavior of a cell needs controlling measures that are efficiently conducted by intercellular signaling. The integument cell development has been observed in the Arabidopsis that presents the

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Manager of a company Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Manager of a company - Assignment Example When it comes to organization in the company, the manager is in charge, be it getting parts to be used in the manufacturing department or distribution of finances and resources to all the departments which is facilitated by the finances and human resources departments. The company has an information system that helps the management know the number of employees in each department and required for each shift; night and day shifts. When it comes to management it’s mostly about leadership though these are two different activities; management of employees and the company resources is led by the top level manager. The manager supervises all the activities through the various departmental leaders; moreover, knowing and listening to our employees needs, ideas and suggestions have a great impact on the leadership of our company. Controlling is mostly about guaranteeing whether as an organization we have achieved our objectives and met our goals; this is done by evaluating the situation of the company after the duration set in the objectives or plan. Evaluation is mainly about comparing the cost and the output/benefits/performance of the organization ie no of motorbikes sold, their cost of manufacturing and profit. Noticeably, the management shares this information with the employees, giving copies of this information to all the departments and discussing the different figures; this builds a sense of trust, feeling of involvement and team work for the employees. By implementing these four functions in managing the HD Cycles company, it is clearly understood by the top level management that it’s all about these functions in all the organization’s departments. The HD cycles company has an overall number of 100 employees and five departments/branches i.e. finances, human resources, sales, manufacturing and employee welfare departments. Management is